M.P.T ACHARYA - IYENGAR
Mandayam Parthasarathi Tirumal Acharya (1887–1951) M.P.T. Acharya was born in 1887 in Madras to a family of Aiyangar brahmins. His father, M.P. Narasimha Aiyangar,was an Indiannationalist
a key member of India House, and one of the founding members of the Communist Party of India. In a long political and activist life
Acharya was at various times associated with India House in London and the Hindu-German Conspiracy during World War I when, as a key functionary of the Berlin Committee, he along with Har Dayal
sought to establish the Indian National Volunteer Corps with Indian prisoners of war from the battlefields of Mesopotamia and Europe. Acharya subsequently moved in 1919 after the end of the war to the Soviet Union
where he was one of the founding members of the Communist Party of India at Tashkent. However, disappointed with theCommunist International, Acharya returned to Europe in the 1920s where he was involved
with the League against Imperialism and subsequently is known to have been involved with the International Anarchist movement.
By 1900, a young Acharya, along with Subramanya Bharathi, had begun publication of the weekly journal called India, and worked hard to popularise the publication within a short time. However, the journal's nationalist editorials
and critical and satirical cartoons quickly drew the attention of The Raj, forcing the young editors to quietly shift to the French enclave ofPondicherry, following the trail of notable numbers who migrated to the enclave as refugees. The publication also acquired popularity in Pondicherry.
Work of the press continued unabated for M.P.T. Acharya, and was expanded to publications of revolutionary literature. The British Government began to seek French assistance to ban the publications which were deemed "seditious literature"
Under pressure from British Indian authorities, the French authority in Pondicherry relented, allowing British Indian police to establish surveillance centres to monitor the activities of the revolutionaries.
Attempts were also made at this time to extradite the Indians to British Indian custody. Subramania Bharaty, along with S.N.T. Acharya (owner of the Indiamagazine) and the latter's cousin, were forced to flee to Europe.
Although some French officials did indeed harbour sympathies for the Indian revolutionaries, the latter also faced some resistance among the local Francophile and Europeanised Indians who saw the "new immigrants" somewhat contemptuously.
The refugee cause was, however, taken up by a number of sympathetic French lawyers. Acharya found assistance from this group to help fight against his expulsion from Pondicherry.
Not a lot is known of Acharya's work after 1921. He is known to have organised an international committee for political prisoners in the 1937, and along with Albert Meltzer, worked for the aid of Chinese political prisoners at the time.
Conflicting accounts suggest he returned to India in 1935.or in 1948. He spent the last few years of his life in poverty in Bombay, where he was known to a small circle of friends. M.P.T. Acharya died in a hospital in Bombay in 1951.